Horseshoe Crab


It is an animal that has lived on earth for 450 million years, which means that this creature existed before the age of dinosaurs. It has survived 3 mass deaths on earth, including Great Dying which causes about 96% of extinct marine creatures. Ancient pruning fossils (species differing from the current crop species) are found to be unchanged for more than 450 million years compared to the existing ones. Crops can be found in shallow water. The food is worms, small-sized crustaceans, and algae. The moths go to the beach with their mates to put about 2,000 to 30,000 eggs under the sand and fertilize them. In 1 mating season, mother cows can spawn 80 thousand to 100 thousand eggs.

Trimming is an animal of crab, crab, shrimp, scorpion, and spider. They belong to the phylum Artropoda: a book-colored animal with an exoskeleton (outer framework) made of chitin. Shaped like a soldier’s shield with a long tail. Although it looks like a crab, it does not occupy the same class as crab (Krustasea) because it does not have 5 pairs of legs, antenna, and jaw. Trimmed into the class Merostomata which means the animal with the mouth surrounded by the foot. Has nine eyes spread all over his body. The two largest eyes of the size are the compound eyes that may be used by the crops to search for a partner. The remaining seven simple eyes can only detect the presence or absence of light and know the movement around his body. Among the seven eyes, two of which are found on the lower body of the crop. Trim also has photoreceptors scattered in the tail.

Compound eyes are made up of thousands of hexagonal-shaped ommatidia. Each ommatidium contains photoreceptor cells, lenses, corneas, and nerve cells. Thanks to these compound eyes, the trim has a vision in a very wide angle, can detect fast movement, and sensitive to polarized light. However, the cropped vision is not sharp and they can not see the color.


Simple eyes can catch the visible light and ultraviolet light from the moon and sun so that the crop can know the right season for mating and laying. Ommatidia and nerve fibers that exist in the eyes of a relatively large belangkas so that the eye is easy to investigate. In addition, the rod and conical cells present in the lateral eyes of the crop (see figure above) are the largest stem cells and cone cells in the animal world. The size of these cells is about 100 times the size of stem cells and cone cells that exist in the human eye.


It takes about 9 to 12 years for the eggs that initially only measure about 2 mm grow into adult chunks that are ready to produce offspring again. It can live for up to 20 years if it is not eaten by other animals, captured by humans, sick, or stranded on land. Nowadays, cropping is a protected animal in some parts of the world because of its declining population. Humans need to consume the crop (and also other animals of course) responsibly.

Blood that carries oxygen is blue, because it contains hemosanin rich in copper. Blood-pruning does not contain hemoglobin (red blood cells) as it is in human blood.
LAL (Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate) in clumped blood will agglomerate when exposed to bacterial toxins. Therefore, blood-clogging is used for various studies to determine whether or not a vaccine and a drug is safe. If you get an injection of a flu vaccine, you should keep in mind the services of a barrel without which the flu vaccine will still be in the development stage. In addition, blood claws are also used to determine the sterilization of medical equipment. The FDA (Food and Drug Administration) in the United States requires that all medical equipment, from needle to implant, be tested beforehand before the patient’s body.

is a clan of horseshoe crabs, Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda, ​​mimi ranti, lives in the waters of Southeast Asian mangroves; Limulus polyphemus, inhabits the eastern coast of North America; Tachypleus gigas, mimi moon, inhabit the coast of Southeast Asia and South Asia; Tachypleus tridentatus, inhabits the coasts of East Asia.

Kingdom of Animalia
Arthropod Phyla
Merostomata Class
The order of Xiphosura
Family Limulidae
Genus Limulus

Of these four species, only L. polyphemus is not found in Indonesian waters. The blood plasma extract (haemocyte lysate) is widely used in biomedical and environmental studies. In the United States, China, and Japan this blood extract is used as a test for endotoxin and to diagnose meningitis and gonorrhea. Anti-toxin serum using hens has grown in Europe, the United States, Japan, and West Asia. Blood color is blue, formed from a compound similar to hemoglobin in humans, called hemosianin. When hemoglobin has an iron atom as a center, the hemocyte has a copper atom as its center.


The great benefits humans derive from the crops on the other hand also contribute greatly to their presence in the wild. The overfishing of horseshoe crabs makes the animal population sharply declining and is becoming endangered. In addition to consumed & used as industrial raw materials, horseshoe crab is also often killed by shellfish farmers because it is considered as a pest that eats shellfish. Other factors such as habitat destruction & pollution also contribute to the decline in the horseshoe crab population. The greatest challenge of the crop conservation effort is the cropping of animals that are difficult to multiply rapidly & there are so many industries that rely their luck on the crop. As a first step to prevent the extinction of the spines, scientists are closely watching the wildlife cycles in their wild habitats in hopes of getting the most effective way to preserve the pruning. Some states in the US such as New Jersey & South Carolina are even acting more extreme by forbidding the culling of altogether.

save horseshoe crabs by mutual preservation of mangrove forests, coastal, marine and the application of laws related to the protection of wildlife and natural surroundings




  • Kōichi Sekiguchi (1988). Biology of Horseshoe Crabs. Science House. ISBN 978-4-915572-25-8.
  • Sekiguchi, K. 1988. Ecology. In: Sekiguchi, K. (Ed). Biology of Horse-shoe Crabs. Science House Co. Ltd, Tokyo. pp. 50-68



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